# Python Operators

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In this post, we are gonna discuss

• Python Operators, as well as,
• Different types of operators in Python. ## Operators in Python

• The operator is a special symbol that specifies which operations you will perform on the values of various data types.
• Python divides the operator's type into these categories:
• Arithmetic operators,
• Assignment operators,
• Comparison operators,
• Logical operators,
• Membership operator,
• Identity operators
• and Bitwise operators

### Arithmetic operators

Used with numeric values to perform mathematical operations.

Addition operation " add value to another value".

Ex:

```x = 5
y = 6
print(x + y) #the output will be 11```

- Operator (Subtraction)

Used to subtract a value from another value.

Ex:

```x = 5
y = 6
print(y - x)# the output will be 1```

* Operator (Multiplication)

Used to multiply two values.

Ex:

```x = 5
y = 6
print(x * y)# the output will be 30```

/ Operator (Division)

Used to divide two values.

Ex:

```x = 30
y = 6
print(x / y) # the output will be 5
```

% Operator (Module)

Return the division remainder.

Ex:

```x = 5
y = 2
print(x % y)# the output will be 1```

** Operator (Exponentiation)

Raises the first number to the power of the second.

Ex:

```x = 2
y = 5
print(x ** y)# the output will be 32 same as 2*2*2*2*2```

// Operator (Floor division)

Divides and returns the integer value of the quotient. It dumps the digits after the decimal.

Ex:

```x = 15
y = 2
print(x // y)# the output will be 7
```

### Assignment operators

We will list some of the most used assignment operations:

"= " The assignment operator

Assigns the value of its right-hand operand to a variable.

Ex:

```x=2
print(x)# the output will be 2```

+= The addition assignment operator

Add a value to a variable in the same line.

Ex:

```x=2
x+=1 # means x=x+1

print(x) # the output will be 3```

- = The subtraction assignment operator

Add a value to a variable in the same line.

Ex:

```x=2
x-=1 # means x=x-1

print(x) # the output will be 1```

*= Operator "Multiply and Assign"

Ex:

```x=2
x*=2 # means x=x*2
print(x) # the output will be 4```

/= Operator "Divide and Assign"

Ex:

```x=2
x/=2 # means x=x/2
print(x) # the output will be 1```

%= Operator " Modulus and Assign"

Ex:

```x=5
x%=3 # means x=x%3
print(x) # the output will be 2```

//= Operator "Floor divide and Assign"

Ex:

```x=5
x//=3 # means x=x//3
print(x) # the output will be 1```

**= Operator " Exponent and Assign"

Ex:

```x=5
x**=3 # means x=x**3
print(x) # the output will be 125```

### Logical Operators

Logical operations used to perform logical operations such as AND operation "and", OR operation "or" and the "not" negation operation.

AND Operator:

• It gives true only if the two operands is true.
• If one of the operands is false, the AND operator will evaluate it to false.

Ex:

```x=5
print(x>2 and x<6)# the output will be true```

or Operator:

• It gives true if one of the two operands at least is true.
• If the two operands are false, the OR operator will evaluate it to false.

Ex:

```x=5
print(x>2 || x<4) # the output will be true one condition is true x>2```

Negation  Operator "not":

It reverses the result, and it gives true if the result is false and false if the result is true.

Ex:

```x=5
print(not(x>2 or x<4)) # the output will be false ```

### Comparison Operators

Comparison operators used to compare two values.

"==" Equal to:

Ex:

```x=5
y=6
print(x == y) # the output will be false```

"!=" Not Equal to:

Ex:

```x=5
y=6
print(x != y) # the output will be true```

">" Greater than and "<" less than

Ex:

```x=5
y=6
print(x > y) # the output will be false
print(x<y) # the output will be true```

">=" Greater than or Equal  and "<=" Less than or Equal

Ex:

```x=5
y=5
print(x >= y)# the output will be true
print(x <= y)# the output will be true```

### Identity Operators

• Test if the two operands share an identity.
• Compare the objects, not if they are equal, but if they are actually the same object, with the same memory location
• Python divides them into "is" and "is not" operator.

is operator

```x = ["red", "yellow"]
y = ["red", "yellow"]
z = x
print(x is y) # the output will be false even if they have the same content
print(x is z) # the output will be true
```

is not operator

```x = ["red", "yellow"]
y = ["red", "yellow"]
z = x
print(x is not y) # the output will be true even if they have the same content
print(x is not z) # the output will be false
```

### Membership Operators

• These Python operators check if a value is a member of a sequence " string, list, tuple".
• There are two memberships operator in Python "in" and "not in".

in operator

• Checks if a value "sequence of value" is present in the sequence.
• It returns true if it found the value in the sequence otherwise it return false.

Ex:

```x = ["red", "yellow"]
print("red" in x)#the output will be true as the sequence red is a member of the list.```

not in operator

• Checks if a value "sequence of value" is not present in the sequence.
• It returns true if it didn't find the value in the sequence otherwise it returns false.

Ex:

```x = ["red", "yellow"]
print("red" not in x)#the output will be false as the sequence red is a member of the list.```

### Bitwise operators

Used in the comparison of binary numbers.

& operator "and"

sets the bit to 1 if the two bits are 1 otherwise if one bit at least 0 then it sets the bit to 0

Ex:

`print(2&3) #the output will be 2`

since the binary for 2 is 10 and the binary for 3 is 11  then when " and " the bits of (2&3) it will be  (10 &11) =(10) the bits of 2 so the result will be 2

| operator "or"

Sets the bit to 1 if one of the two bits at least is 1 otherwise if the two bits is 0 then it sets the bit to 0

Ex:

`print(2|3) #the output will be 3`

since the binary for 2 is 10 and the binary for 3 is 11  then when " or " the bits of (2|3) it will be  (10 |11) =(11) the bits of 3 so the result will be 3.

^ operator "xor:exclusive or"

sets the bit to 1 if only one of the two bits is 1 otherwise it will be 0.

Ex:

`print(2^3) #the output will be 1`

since the binary for 2 is 10 and the binary for 3 is 11  then when " xor " the bits of (2^3) it will be  (10 ^11) =(01) the bits of 1 so the result will be 1.

~ operator "binary one's complement"

It inverts all the bits 1 to 0 and 0 to 1.

Ex:

`print(~2) #the output will be -3`

since the binary for 2 is 00000010 when " ~" the bits of (~2) it will be  (11111101) the bits of -3 so the result will be -3.

<< operator "binary left shift"

x<<y It shifts the bits of the first operand x to the left numbers of placing depending on the second operand value y.

Ex:

`print(2<<2) #the output will be 8`

Since the binary for 2 is 00000010 when " <<" the bits of (<<<2) two places:

The second operand value here is 2" it will be (1000) the bits of 8. so the result will be 8.

>> operator "binary right shift"

x>>y It shifts the bits of the first operand x to the right numbers of placing depending on the second operand value y.

Ex:

`print(3<<2) #the output will be 0`

since the binary for 3 is 11 when " >>" the bits of (>>3) two places :the second operand value here is 2" it will be  (00) the bits of 0 so the result will be 0.

### Conclusion

in this post we discussed Python operators:

• Arithmetic operators,
• Assignment operators,
• Comparison operators,
• Logical operators,
• Membership operator,
• Identity operators
• and Bitwise operators